Monday, August 17, 2015
That Geno Smith, Jets quarterback, broke his mandible in two places, is not a testament to the severity of the blow that struck him, but instead, a result of the physics and anatomy and design. There are many circles found throughout the human body and whether it is the mandible (jaw bone), the tibia and fibula (shin bone), the radius and ulna (forearm) or pelvis, it is tough to break a circle in just one spot. Just imagine breaking a pretzel.
Mr. Smith was in a locker room altercation when he was punched in the face and sustained a fractured mandible (jaw). Just to be clear with word, fractured and broken mean the same thing. The jaw is a common facial bone to break, second only to broken noses and the most common causes are motor vehicle crashes and altercations. Most people know that something is wrong almost immediately. Aside from the pain, there is a sense that the teeth don’t quite fit properly. The muscles that attach to the mandible, and allow us to open and close our mouths, shift the bone fragments and the lower teeth that are attached don’t quite align with the upper teeth in the maxilla. And as with any injury, swelling and spasm occurs gradually making it difficult to open the mouth. This is called trismus.
For the doctor, though, the important thing to remember is anatomy and physiology and how the body absorbs force. If there is one fracture found in the jaw, the search must happen for the second break. Most often, a fracture of the body of the jaw is associated with a fracture of the condyle on the opposite side. The condyle is the thin bone that connects the jaw to the skull.
Even before worrying about the broken bone, other issues need to be thought of. If there is enough bleeding and swelling, breathing can become an issue. Associated broken teeth or dentures can fall into the back of the throat, trachea or lung, obstructing the airway, so making certain breathing happens is always job one.
In boxing, the one goal of the sport is to inflict a concussion and knock out the opponent. If there is enough force to break the jaw, there is also enough potential force to cause a head injury or break a neck. With most trauma resuscitation, the obvious injuries are appreciated but take second stage to the injuries that are lethal or permanently disabling. Even if takes just a minute or two to consider what badness might occur, that time is invaluable in caring for the patient.
The diagnosis of a broken jaw is often made clinically by appreciating the swelling, pain and disfigurement that is associated with the broken jaw. X-ray and CT scan then confirm the location of the break. Sometimes special dental x-rays are required to assess damage to individual teeth and their roots, especially if the fracture line goes into the tooth socket and that might affect treatment options.
Treatment is almost always surgery to align the bone fragments, especially those that are teeth bearing. Some children or elderly patients without teeth may be spared the scalpel. The teeth must be aligned as perfectly as possible so that bite is maintained. Fractures that heal with poor alignment can cause wear and tear on the temporomandibular joint (TM joint). This is the joint where the mandible attaches to the temporal bone of the skull. Like any joint that is placed under stress; it can develop arthritis, inflammation and pain. There are many surgical options but often titanium plates are screwed in place across the fracture site to hold it in place. Not only does the fracture needs to be plated, but in some cases, the jaw needs to be wired shut s the bone heals.
The use of wiring depends upon the clinical situation, the stability of the fracture and the discretion of the surgeon. There are different wiring techniques but, in general, wires are tightened from the upper teeth to the low teeth preventing the jaw from moving and opening. Just like any other bone, a mandible fracture needs about 6-8 weeks to start to heal and that means the jaw will be wired shut for that long as well. There are exceptions, especially with condyle fractures, where the wires are kept in place for only a couple of weeks.
If the mandible fracture is an isolated injury, then there is little reason to limit activity. Geno Smith was seen playing catch shortly after surgery and for a football player that seems like a pretty reasonable thing to do… as long as he avoids helmets, pads and the risk of getting hit in the jaw again.
It goes without saying that when it comes to trauma, prevention is always the best treatment. From seatbelts to bicycle helmets, it’s what is done before the accident that can help minimize damage. Unfortunately, in Mr. Smith’s case, turning the other cheek didn’t quite work out.
This entry was tagged broken jaw, concussion, Geno Smith, mandible fracture, plates, screws, surgery, wiring